In the 18 years of exile, Mongane Wally Serote participated on various levels of the ANC structures in the mobilisation, planning, negotiations and
leading in the struggle for the Liberation of South Africa in the Political, armed, struggle and cultural sectors.
He was the lead of the regional underground structure in Botswana, Head of the Department of Arts and Culture; member of the Regional Political Military Committee in Botswana and in Britain. He was the cultural ache of the ANC, in Britain and Europe. From 1990, he was head of Arts and Culture of the ANC in South Africa. He spearheaded the organization and mobilisation of the cultural workers through major festivals, symposiums , conferences in Botswana (1982), Amsterdam (1987) London (1990), Johannesburg (1993) which resulted in the formation of National organizations of writers, musicians, Theatre, Dance, Photographers, filmmakers. He participated in the negotiations for the transformation of the international cultural and other forms of boycotts of the Apartheid system into structures of democracy in the new dispensation in South Africa.
He is a writer of a number of Novels, poetry collections, essays and plays, and has been awarded national and international awards in this regard, including the Ikhamanga in Silver, by President Thabo Mbeki. He became a Member of Parliament and chairperson of Arts and Culture, languages, science and Technology portfolio committee of Parliament. He initiated, spearheaded facilitated the research, discussions and debate at National level and organized and put on the national agenda, through negotiations with the Universities , science Councils, various indigenous organizations e.g. Dikgosi, Dingaka, different government departments, various communities nationally for Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) to be accepted as a tool for the social and economic upliftment, nationally. And he led a team which organized the first Indigenous Knowledge conference in 1998.
He participated in the Arts, Culture, heritage sectors of the national negotiations at CODESA. He has a Master of fine Arts with Columbia University in New York as a Fulbright student. He was CEO of the National Heritage and Memorial - Freedom Park. He is the CEO of iARi. He chairs various boards of organizations e.g. The Johannesburg Theatres, the Indigenous Knowledge system Trust of South African, (iIkssa). He was initiated as a Ngaka in 1999. He has initiated and spearheaded discussion at a National level for the creation of the medicinal gardens in the 9 provinces of South Africa. He has been awarded an honourary Professorship by the University of South Africa.